Glass Fiber

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Glass Fiber
glass fibre are the same and it is a material that is found of a lot of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass in it. glassmakers have done with a lot of experiments with glass fibers in history. But mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the help of the invention of finer machine tooling, Here we see the process of manufacturing for the glass fiber.


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(I) Melting 
Do you know that glass fiber is manufactured in a lot of ways? But in most, it is produced by two methods and there are two main types of glass fiber products.  at the start, fiber is produced from a direct melt process or by a marble remelt process you can produce it using any of this method. After this, the next process begins which is the marbling process in this process the molten material is sheared and rolled with the marbles which are very cool and packaged. after this the marbles which are produced are taken to the fiber manufacturing facility where these are inserted in a can and remelted. Next, the molten glass is extruded to the bushing to form it into the fiber so they get ready. On the other hand, in the process of direct melt, the molten glass in the furnace goes directly toward the bushings for its formation. 

(II) formation 
 In this process, the bushing plates are the most important part of this process which is used for machinery to make the fiber. It is a small metal furnace that contains nozzles in it for the fibers to form through it. It is almost made up of platinum alloyed with the rhodium of durability. The platinum is then used because the melted glass has a natural affinity for the wetting in it. When the bushings were the first time used, they were 100% found of platinum and the glass wetted the bushing so in this way easily it ran under the plate after the exiting to the nozzle and accumulated on the underside. Due to its high efficiency and the strength to wear the platinum is alloyed with the rhodium. In the process of direct melt, the bushing serves as a collector for the molten glass. It is heated up slightly to maintain the glass at the exact temperature for the production of fiber. In the marble melting process, the bushing acts like a furnace in which the way it melts more of the material. Bushings are a major expense in the formation of glass fiber. The design of nozzles is also critical and the number of nozzles ranges from 200 to 4000 in multiples of two hundred. An important part of the nozzle in continuous filament manufacture is the thickness of nozzle walls in the exit region of the nozzle. It was found that inserting a counterbore here reduces the process of a wedding in it. Today now in this year the nozzle is specially designed to have a minimum of thickness at the exit. as a glass flow through the nozzle and it forms a drop that is suspended from the end. As well as when it falls it leaves a thread attached through the meniscus to the nozzle as long as to the viscosity to remain in the correct range for the formation of the fiber. The smaller and annuall ring of the nozzle and with it the thinner the wall at the exit. the faster the drop will form and then fell away and the lower its tendency to wet out the vertical part of the nozzle. The tension surface of the glass is what influences the formation of the meniscus. for an e-glass, it should be around about 400mn/m. The attenuation speed is important in the design of the nozzle.

Although showing this speed toward down can make up the coarser fiber and it is uneconomic to run at speed for which the nozzles were not designed.


(III) Continuous filament process
In the process of continuous filament after the fibers are drawn and size is applied and This size helps to protect the fiber as it is wound onto a bobbin. The particular size applied relates to end-use. even when some sizes are processing aids and others makes the fiber to have an affinity for a certain resin if the fiber is to be used in a composite and size is usually added at 0.5 to 2.0 percent by the weight wedding then it takes place at around 1km/min.

(IV) Staple fiber process
For the production process of stable fiber, there are a lot of ways for the manufacturing of the fiber. The glass can be blown or blasted due to heat or steam after exiting the formation machine. Basically, these fibers are made into some sort of mat. The most common process is used for the rotary process. here the glass enters a rotating spinner and due to centrifugal force is thrown out horizontally. then the air jets push it down vertically and the binder is applied to it. after that, the mat is vacuumed to a screen and the binder is cured in the oven.

Uses
glass fiber is used for a lot of works some of them are given here Basically glass fiber which we use it includes mats and fabrics for thermal insulation in it, electrical insulation, high strength fabrics, or heat-and-corrosion-resistant fabrics which we use. glass fiber is also used to reinforce various materials like tent poles, poles vault, arrows, bows and crossbows, translucent roofing panels, automobiles bodies, hockey sticks surfboards, boat hulls, and paper honeycombs, etc. Glass fiber also used in the medical field for different purposes in it. Glass fiber is extensively used to make FRP tanks and vessels.
An open fiberglass grid is used to strengthen the asphalt floor. [24] Non-woven fiberglass/polymer blends are saturated with asphalt emulsions and coated with asphalt to form a waterproof, crack-resistant film. The use of fiberglass-reinforced polymer ribs instead of steel ribs shows that steel is promising in areas where it is desired to avoid corrosion. You can use it for a lot of other works which are not described here.

Potential uses
The use of fiberglass with the help of composite alternatives has recently been seen in biomedical applications. When short-field phosphate glass fibers can produce better performance through osteoclast proliferation and surface chemistry. Another potential use is for electronic applications, as sodium-based fiberglass has improved electronic properties that help or replace lithium in lithium-ion batteries.



Infections 

It will not occur long term infections by touching to the glass fiber. Your eyes can be affected by it and eyes can become red after exposure to the glass fiber. The nose can be affected when fibers are inhaled by glass fiber. many other diseases like asthma and bronchitis can also occur by glass fiber exposures.
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